Disposição Final de Resíduos em Aterros Sanitários e Saúde Humana

Gustavo Silveira Graudenz, Alexandre de Oliveira e Aguiar, Andreza Portella Ribeiro

Resumo


Este artigo faz uma revisão crítica da literatura científica sobre aterros sanitários e seus efeitos na saúde humana, abordando os agravos de saúde mais comumente associados com habitar próximo a esses locais de disposição final de resíduos. As questões de saúde incluídas foram baixo peso ao nascer, malformações congênitas, alguns tipos de neoplasias, alergias, asma e outras doenças respiratórias utilizando-se as bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e banco de teses de pós-graduação da CAPES para pesquisa sistemática. Apesar de alguns estudos indicarem riscos associados a saúde com a residir próximo a aterros sanitários, a maioria dos estudos, principalmente os mais recentes,  não demonstram risco de saúde significativo nessas condições. São discutidas algumas limitações e os fatores de confusão mais comuns nos trabalhos da área. A maioria dos estudos carece de medidas diretas de exposição a poluentes, de um delineamento prospectivo e de comparação dos diferentes métodos de gerenciamento dos resíduos. Conclui-se que até esse momento, as evidências demostrando riscos epidemiológicos significativos à saúde em aterros controlados são fracas. Mais pesquisas interdisciplinares podem melhorar os conhecimentos nos riscos à saúde humana decorrentes de morar na proximidade a aterros sanitários.


Palavras-chave


Resíduos Sólidos, Saúde Pública, Anomalias Congênitas, Neoplasias

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